Friday, March 30, 2012

The Wildlife Society Western section conference > cats

The Wildlife Society Western Society 2012 Conference
FEBRUARY 1-3, 2012

TWSWS 2012 Abstracts

DANIEL BITEMAN, Institute for Wildlife Studies, 2327 Kettner Blvd, San Diego, CA, 92101, (619) 524-9064,; Co-authors: Andrew S. Bridges and David K. Garcelon

Ecology and Management of Wildlife on Military Lands Thu, Feb 2, 2:25 pm

Abstract: Recovery programs for federally listed San Clemente loggerhead shrike (SCLS; Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi) and San Clemente sage sparrow (SAGS; Amphispiza belli clementeae) have been conducted by the U.S. Navy since the 1990s. Non-native mammalian predators were implicated in the historic population declines and remain an obstacle to recovery. The population of SCLS reached a low of 14 individuals in 1998, requiring extreme measures to protect the population. We have worked with the Navy to reduce predation threats by developing a variety of innovative technological techniques for managing predation. These include shock-collars attached to native island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) to protect nest sites, and a variety of still-frame and video monitoring systems to identify species predating nests. An automated trap-monitoring system allows us to be immediately alerted, either directly or via the internet, if a trap has been tripped. Finally, we employed a mobile, thermal infrared surveillance and video camera system allowing us to locate, identify, and removal spotlight-wary feral cats. These techniques have provided a more quantitative understanding of predation effects and allow us to better allocate protection efforts. In the future these and similar technologies will likely play an increasing role in SAGS and other avian species recovery programs.

BRIAN HUDGENS, Institute for Wildlife Studies, P.O. Box 1104, Arcata, CA, 95503, (707) 822-4258,; Co-author: David K. Garcelon

Ecology and Management of Wildlife on Military Lands Thu, Feb 2, 3:45 pm

Abstract: San Nicolas Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis dickeyi) suffered a dramatic decline from 2009 to 2010, following island-wide removal of feral cats (Felis catus). Foxes have been monitored annually since 2000 on three trapping grids. Although San Nicolas Island supports higher densities of foxes of any California Channel Island, population declined 30%-50% on two grids and remained relatively stable on another. Adult survival also decreased 37% in the two grids, while increasing in the other. There was also a decrease in juvenile survival from 2009-2010 relative to previous years. We examined several possible mechanisms for the decline. Feral cat removal was ruled out because being captured in a leg-hold trap did not decrease fox survival. We could not rule out virulent disease since there was a marked increase in canine adenovirus and canine distemper exposure. However, we handled 290 foxes in 2010 to assess potential impacts of cat removal on individual foxes, and no foxes showed clinical signs of disease. We rejected a dramatic loss of food resources since fox weights did not differ between 2009 and 2010. We concluded that the most likely cause was negative density dependence in adult survival. The mechanism underlying density dependent survival rates remains unknown.

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Feral Cat Blog! Note:

Some time soon I may post the recent reports from the San Nicolas Island Feral Cat Removal project. See previous Feral Cat Blog! post here:

Monday, May 23, 2005
Primary and Compensatory Restoration -- Feral Cat Eradication

Wednesday, June 18, 2008
San Nicolas Island feral cat eradication plan

Thursday, June 19, 2008
san nicolas island feral cats: HSUS press release

Feral freeroaming outdoor cats in Maine

Since 2006, the Maine Chapter of The Wildlife Society has worked on the feral or free roaming or outdoor cat issue. In March 2007 they issued a Feral Cats position statement opposing Trap Neuter Return (based on the position statement of the national The Wildlife Society) that is also hosted on the website of the Maine office of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The Maine Chapter of TWS prepared a mailing to all veterinarians in the state of Maine and formed the Feral and Outdoor Cat Committee. Several years ago they began planning a feral cat study to document locations of feral cat colonies in Maine and their impact on wildlife. In their November 2011 newsletter and on the Maine Wetlands website, they request help with the study, and report having “documented 33 likely locations of feral cat colonies ranging in size from 10 individuals to nearly 100.”

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Feral Cat Blog! Notes:

In November 2011 I advised leading cat advocates nationwide that the HSUS rep in Maine, Katie Lisnik, began hosting freeroaming cat forums and prepared a report on Freeroaming Cats in Maine. (Katie Lisnik is now the national HSUS Director of Cat Protection and Policy.)

In December 2009 I shared the following with leading cat advocates nationwide:

You'll recall the essay, Critical Assessment of TNR, authored by Longcore of The Urban Wildlands Group* that I shared in April 2009. Shortly after, a group of environmental people** who do not favor Trap-Neuter-Return issued a related paper issued by Lepcyzk et al., What Conservation Biologists Can Do Regarding Trap-Neuter-Return: A Response to Longcore et al.
Downloadable doc file
One of the authors, Elizabeth Stone, DVM, is on the board of the Center for Wildlife Health Research, a Maine group with interest in the feral cat and wildlife problem. You’ll note their Maine cat survey, research they plan, school curriculum regarding cats, and board member bios.
Very interestingly, Dr. Stone is opening a high-volume, low-cost spay/neuter clinic for cats in Pownal, Maine “as part of the CWHR‘s strategy to reduce cat depredation on wildlife.” An education component is included. The clinic is listed as pending with Humane Alliance‘s NSNRT program.
The Maine Chapter of The Wildlife Society has issued a position statement against TNR, based on that of the national group. A letter in support of a grant application for Dr. Stone’s spay/neuter clinic has been submitted by the Maine Wildlife Society to the Maine Outdoor Heritage Fund. The Maine Wildlife Society is also working with a student to investigate the impact of feral cat colonies on Maine’s wildlife and species of concern. They sent a letter in May 2009 to Maine veterinarians with their position statement and asking for help in promoting indoor cats .
* Longcore, Travis - The Urban Wildlands Group is one of the six conservation groups that filed a lawsuit in June 2008 against the City of Los Angeles where the judge’s decision December 4, 2009 ruled against City support of TNR. In Jan 2007 I learned of the CEQA requirement for LA Animal Services and contacted Boks, then GM, for the report which was in process.
** Lepcyk and Hatley (I’ve shared their papers on forums and on Feral Cats in the News ~ the Feral Cat Blog!); all are familiar with Temple!)

A few days later in December 2009 I mentioned:

Something I meant to include in this message was a disturbing comment in the January 2009 minutes and March 2009 newsletter of the Maine Chapter of The Wildlife Society.

In addition to TNR, need to declaw cats so they don’t continue to wreak havoc on wildlife.

March 30, 2012 Notes:

The Community Spay Neuter Clinic operated by Dr. Stone in Freeport Maine opened in November 2010 and includes services for feral cats.

The website for the for Center for Wildlife Health Research [ ] is again not online at this time. I have a presentation (that I believe was hosted there) titled "Reducing wildlife predation by cats: Finding opportunities" by Allen Salo and Elizabeth Stone which includes these topics:

Educational experiences and views of veterinarians of indoor cat confinement by cat owners
Status and trends of feral cat colonies and TNR in Maine

The 2009 comment paper in Conservation Biology, "What Conservation Biologists Can Do Regarding Trap Neuter Return: Response to Longcore et al" which was hosted on the Center for Wildlife Health Research website when it was online and is hosted on the American Bird Conservancy website and elsewhere.

See also: Another perspective on feral cat control
David A. Jessup, DVM MPVM DACZM and Elizabeth Stone, DVM MS in JAVMA Vol 237 No 5, September 1, 2010

Thursday, March 29, 2012

cats are coyote prey > more anti cat / TNR from ABC

Several years ago, groups opposed to outdoor freeroaming cats and Trap Neuter Return or Release strengthened and rededicated their efforts with specific and collaborative strategies (notably but not only American Bird Conservancy, The Wildlife Society, US Fish and Wildlife Service.)

Today's ABC offering was a media release Studies Show Outdoor Cats Are Popular Prey for Coyotes
Well-meaning but misguided cat lovers are creating unsafe conditions for domestic cats by releasing them back into areas where they may become prey for coyotes and other predators,” said Darin Schroeder, ABC’s Vice President of Conservation Advocacy. “Owners who let their pet cat out into their neighbourhoods may be unknowingly ringing the dinner bell to unseen coyotes. We urge states, cities, and communities to reject this inhumane approach to the feral cat problem and instead, require responsible care of pets and the removal of feral cats from the wild."
As usual, it's picked up by various media outlets who generally accept whatever is included! Don't know why the press release above did not include a link to the current "study" mentioned . . .
A study just published in the spring edition of The Wildlife Professional, focuses on the urban coyote reality and references sightings of the carnivore in Central Park and Manhattan.
. . . but anyway, here it is: The Last Frontier: Eastern Coyotes in New York City
Anne H. Toomey, Mark Weckel, Chris Nagy, Linda J. Gormezano, and Scott Silver

Here's the 2009 version of ABC's press release Study Finds Outdoor Cats Easy Prey for Coyotes, Recommends Keeping Cats Indoors

Well-meaning but misguided TNR practitioners are creating unsafe conditions for domestic cats by releasing them back into areas where they may become prey for coyotes and other predators,” said Darin Schroeder, American Bird Conservancy’s Vice President of Conservation Advocacy. “Providing an all-you-can-eat buffet for coyotes is not a sensible solution and we urge states and communities to reject this inhumane approach to the feral cat problem and require responsible care of pets and the removal of feral cats from the wild.
The video mentioned in the press releases and today's news articles was released by ABC in May 2009.

While much of the anti cat/TNR information is biased and misrepresented, it is true cats are prey for coyotes and some people don't realize it. So the take away here is as I've urged numerous times before on Feral Cats in the News ~ the Feral Cat Blog! and on Cat Management in Communities or Community Cat Management:

Community Cat Management
A prevention AND solution action for cities, counties, communities is to immediately implement or support comprehensive cat management programs that promote CONCURRENTLY:

* spay neuter, identification, and containment as possible or supervision for 'owned' cats and
* Trap-Neuter-RETURN-Manage (TNRM) for unowned cats.
* covered dumpsters and garbage containers
Feral Cat Blog! Resource:

Learn about coyotes and how to co-exist: Coyote Project

Community Cats Trap Neuter Release Proposed Policy > American Public Health - Veterinary Public Health

see update at bottom

In 2010 the Veterinary SPIG (Special Interest Group) of the American Public Health Association (APHA) recommended that Trap Neuter Vaccinate Release be discussed as a preferred option for feral/stray cat management!

download pdf of the 2010 Veterinary Public Health TNVR resolution.

In 2010, 2011 and 2012 newsletters of the APHA Veterinary Public Health Section:

Spring 2010 APHA Veterinary Public Health Newsletter

. . . . . the trap neuter and release proposal (“Collaboration, not confrontation to manage feral and stray cat populations”) received a negative review by the APHA’s Joint Policy Committee (JPC). However, a very dedicated team of experts created an excellent appeal that answered the JPC’s concerns, and we are very optimistic it will receive a favorable review in July.

Fall 2010 APHA Veterinary Public Health Newsletter

Speaking of projects, besides our obvious roles in zoonotic diseases, the most numerous suggestions for projects were:

c. Humane treatment of animals, including advancing TNR as a cat management program where possible. The Vet PH SPIG recommends TNR be discussed as a preferred option for feral/stray cat management.

Winter 2010 APHA Veterinary Public Health Newsletter

Proposed Resolutions:
A resolution is being considered for the endorsement of Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) programs as the preferred management of stray and feral cat populations. More to follow pending SPIG discussion and consensus.

Fall 2011 APHA Veterinary Public Health Newsletter

Vet SPIG Members: Thought I’d update you on the status of our proposal to adopt trap-neuter-vaccinate-and-return, or TNVR, as a preferred public health measure to control free roaming community cats.
We first submitted our proposal in 2010, but it was rejected on the lack of compelling science. Our team of experts built a solid package for the appeal. However, the appeal was rejected but there was a comment that “you are close”.
We submitted an updated version earlier this year, but that was rejected mainly on wildlife concerns, and that some wildlife organizations opposed TNVR. This year’s appeal was also rejected despite the fact that our focus is public health. To assure that we have as complete a proposal as possible, I will send it for comment to the AVMA, other public health groups, and wildlife organizations.This active approach should, at least, focus the issues for and against TNVR.

Winter 2012 APHA Public Health Veterinary Newsletter

Lastly our proposal to adopt TNVR (trap-neuter-vaccinate-return) as the recommended approach to managing community cats will be fine tuned this coming year. We received outstanding input from the AAPHV, but will actively seek formal reviews from similar organizations to include the AVMA and the Wildlife Vets.

AAPHV = American Association of Public Health Veterinarians

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Feral Cat Blog! Notes:

Saturday, July 26, 2008
Feral Cats, Public Health, Environment: American Public Health Association

Feral cat experts also presented at the APHA 2009 Conference.

Presentation at the 2011 APHA Conference: 252201 Community Partnering and Collaboration for Rabies Prevention Tuesday, November 1, 2011 William Courtney, DVM, MPH , Associate Dean for Public Health, School fo Aerospace Medicine, Brooks City-Base, TX

Another perspective on feral cat control
David A. Jessup, DVM MPVM DACZM and Elizabeth Stone, DVM MS in JAVMA Vol 237 No 5, September 1, 2010:

[excerpts, as always, read entire]

We disagree . . . . . that the human health risks associated with feral cats is low, and we know of no peer-reviewed research supporting this statement.

Over the past three years we have viewed with alarm a pattern of inviting advocates of TNR to national public health meetings and a steady refusal to include other perspectives.

March 30, 2012 Update: Dr. Court kindly replied that the Veterinary Public Health section of the APHA did not submit the policy in 2012, but have received constructive feedback and will resubmit in 2013.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Dr. Margaret Slater > Atlantic Veterinary College, UPEI > free-roaming cats

Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island > Freeroaming Cats Issues and Ideas

Dr. Margaret Slater, veterinarian and epidemiologist, visited the Atlantic Veterinary College, UPEI, on March 19-20 [2012] to talk about issues affecting free-roaming cats. Dr. Slater, Senior Director of Veterinary Epidemiology at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), is internationally recognized for her work on sources, problems, and potential solutions for free-roaming cats and dogs. She has authored over 85 peer-reviewed publications and two books. While at AVC she gave several talks and met with graduate and undergraduate students. Links to two of her PowerPoint presentations and a one-hour webinar are below.
Free-roaming Cats: Issues and New Ideas for (their) Survival
PowerPoint pdf
one-hour webinar version
Saving Cats' Lives in Animal Shelters through Data-driven Programs
PowerPoint pdf

Dr. Slater’s visit was sponsored by the SJDAWC, the Centre for Veterinary Epidemiological Research, the AVC Animal Welfare Club (with assistance from the Animal Welfare Foundation of Canada), and the PEI Humane Society.

[end quote]

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Feral Cat Blog! Note:

See also today's Feral Cat Blog! Post:

Canadian Veterinarian Medical Convention 2011 > Trap Neuter Release Programs for Feral Cats

Management of Invasive Species: Info-Gap Perspectives > cat culling problem

Info Gap Decision Theory
"Info-gap theory is a methodology for supporting model-based decisions under severe uncertainty."

Click Biological Conservation then Surveillance on Info-Gap Theory

download pdf: Yakov Ben-Haim, 2013, Management of Invasive Species: Info-Gap Perspectives, to appear in Managing Invasive Species, Terry Walshe and Mark A. Burgman, eds., Cambridge University Press. Preprint.

Yakov Ben Haim, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

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Recurring Feral Cat Blog! Note:

AnimalResources and the Feral Cat Blog! urge everyone to use nonlethal and nontoxic solutions to all life and earth challenges, large and small!!!

Canadian Veterinarian Medical Convention 2011 > Trap Neuter Release Programs for Feral Cats

63rd CVMA Convention Scientific Presentations (Canadian Veterinary Medical Association)
July 6 - 9, 2011
Halifax, Nova Scotia

AVC’s Trap-Neuter-Release Program for Feral Cats
Peter Foley, MSc, DVM, DACVIM


Since the beginning of 2001, a feral cat neutering program has been run at the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC), University of Prince Edward Island, in cooperation with the Cat Action Team (CAT), a local non-profit volunteer organization whose primary goal is to trap, neuter, and release feral cats on Prince Edward Island (PEI). They have been doing this work in conjunction with the AVC and 5 other privately owned veterinary clinics on PEI for the last 10 years

Advantages and Disadvantages of Trap-Neuter-Release Programs for Feral Cats
Peter Foley, MSc, DVM, DACVIM

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 Feral Cat Blog! Notes:

Serious followers of feral cat issues will have long been aware of the 2002 journal published article:
A trap, neuter, and release program for feral cats on Prince Edward Island

See also today's post:
Dr. Margaret Slater > Atlantic Veterinary College, UPEI > free-roaming cats

New England Federation Humane April 2012 Conference > Feral or freeroaming cats

From my files February 13, 2012:

New England Federation of Humane Societies 2012 Conference
April 14-16, 2012, Mystic Marriott, Mystic, Connecticut

[selected cat-related tracks, always read entire (download pdf)New England Fed 2012 Conference Program]

Targeted Spay/Neuter: How, Why & Where to Find the Funding - Bryan Kortis, PetSmart Charities
Spaying and neutering works to reduce free-roaming cat as well as owned cat and dog populations, but only if it is done correctly. One key to success is properly targeting available resources, including spay and neuter surgeries, volunteers and funds. In this workshop, we’ll discuss why targeting is now the cutting edge in the Trap/Neuter/Return and spay/neuter fields, how to go about doing it effectively and applying for PetSmart Charities’ High Impact Spay/Neuter grants.

Feral or Frightened Cat? Research that Helps You Decide! - Dr. Margaret Slater, ASPCA
Do you have feral cats coming in to your shelter? Are you sure they aren’t just frightened? How do shelter professionals tell the difference between unsocialized or frightened but socialized cats? We will explore the problems in making these distinctions, and common methods of doing so in animal shelters. We will introduce new research results regarding the validity of these assessments, and share information to help your shelter decide how to handle your incoming cats to achieve best live outcomes for them.
Topics include:
Discussion of the issues in assessing cat socialization in a shelter setting
Results of a national survey on how shelters determine if cats are socialized
Research on the validity and ability to predict socialization using different assessments
The transformation of this validation work into a possible scoring system for use in shelters
Further efforts in this area to help shelters make this difficult decision

Naked ... Data
Research Results in Feline Lives Saved
Dr. Emily Weiss, ASPCA

New Jersey Environmental Health Association 2012 Conference > Addressing Free-roaming Cats

2012 NJEHA Annual Conference Presentations
March 4-6, 2012
Atlantic City, New Jersey

download pdf: Welcome to the Jungle: Addressing a Variety of Animal Issues
Colin T. Campbell, DVM
Deputy Public Health Veterinarian
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

The first issue is Addressing Free-roaming Cat Situations.

Monday, March 26, 2012

Whole Cat Annual Workshop - Tufts and MAC - March 25, 2012

From my files February 25, 2012 that I didn't post at the time. Among other things, feral or freeroaming or community cat news, events and resources are finally much more publicized in recent years. Since 2001 I have assessed periodically and although being comprehensive as needed, have tried to fill in gaps by providing info that is not already "out there!"

The Whole Cat Workshop
Co-presented with the Massachusetts Animal Coalition
The Whole Cat Workshop is scheduled for Sunday, March 25, 2012 on the Cummings School campus. Emily McCobb (DVM, MS, DACVA), director of the Tufts Shelter Medicine Program, will be the course director. This conference is 6 hours of Continuing Education credit for the Veterinary Medicine track.


Veterinary Medicine Track: Helping Cats and Helping Your Practice

Free Roaming Cats, Rabies and the Law - Lorraine O'Connor, MDAR (DVM)

Infectious Disease Concerns with Free Roaming Cats: Things to Consider When Stray Cats Become Pets - Jessica Markovich (DVM)

Anesthesia, Analgesia and Safe Monitoring for High Volume Cat Clinics - Emily McCobb (DVM, MS, DACVA)

High Volume Surgical Techniques - Sara White, Spay ASAP Inc., (DVM)

How to Make Reduced Cost Spay/Neuter Work Financially - Sara White, Spay ASAP Inc., (DVM)

Trapping Workshop (Optional) - Laura Heffernan, Lowell TNR Project

PetFinder Community Cat Track

The Role of TNR in Community Cat Programs - Bryan Kortis, PetSmart Charities

Research Highlights from the ASPCA, Feral versus Friendly and Population Modeling - Margaret Slater, ASPCA (DVM)

TNR Programs Nationwide: Problems and Solutions - Katie Lisnik, HSUS

Successful Community TNR Efforts in Massachusetts - Panel and Moderated Discussion
Kit Lilly, Charles River Alley Cats
Laura Heffernan, Lowell TNR Project
Jeff Stephens, Fitchburg Board of Health
Elizabeth Evans, Spay Worcester
Trapping Workshop (Optional) Laura Heffernan, Lowell TNR Project

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Previous AnimalResources posts about the annual Whole Cat Workshop:

Feral Cats in the News ~ the Feral Cat Blog > January 2004 [scroll down]

Cat and TNR Events etc > March 2008

War and the No-Kill Movement: Michael Mountain,

War and the No-Kill Movement
March 22, 2012 by Michael Mountain

The no-kill philosophy extends way beyond homeless pets. It’s a way of living that takes killing off the table – in every area once and for all. You can’t be no-kill and go hunting. You can’t be no-kill and be pro-abortion, pro-capital punishment or pro-vivisection. And you certainly can’t be no-kill and support going to war.

Virginia Federation of Humane Societies March 2012 Conference

Presentations at the upcoming March 29-31, 2012 annual conference of the Virginia Federation of Humane Societies in Williamsburg, Virginia.

download pdf: VFHS Annual Conference 2012 brochure

selected presentations by the Feral Cat Blog! (as always, see entire)

Opening Session: Lessons Learned from Austin, Ryan Clinton (No Kill Advocate)

The Dynamics of Feral Cat Rescue and Management
Susan Greene, Petfinder

"Alternatives to euthanasia, such as tame-and-home for feral kittens, and trap/neuter/return for adult feral cats, are increasingly popular. Many colonies have been managed by TNR for a long enough time to yield results on the factors that influence their success. Access to affordable spay/neuter, homing of adoptable cats and kittens, and dedicated monitoring of the colony will speed reduction of colony size. Adoption has become a vital component of TNR. Spay/neuter clinics and TNR-based groups have become members of Petfinder to place friendly stray cats and feral kittens in caring homes. This presentation will review the components of TNR and discuss results noted by caretakers and researchers."

Response to predator scent by House Finches across an urban-rural gradient - cats

Fourteenth Annual All Scientist Meeting and Poster Symposium 2012
Arizona State University

under Human Decisions and Biodiversity

Weaver, Melinda, Mathieu Giraudeau, and Kevin McGraw. download poster pdf: Response to predator scent by House Finches across an urban-rural gradient

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Ecology of feral cats in tall forests of Far East Gippsland

Thesis of A.J. Buckmaster, one of the recent presenters at the March 2012 Vertebrate Pest Conference that I previously shared info about.

download pdf: Ecology of the Feral Cat (Felis Catus) in the Tall Forests of Far East Gippsland
A.J. Buckmaster, March 2011

Far East Gippsland
Gippsland is a large rural region in Victoria, Australia.

The author states this is the first research undertaken on feral cats in the tall forests in Australia. Chapter 9 Synthesis outlines key findings and includes "Implications of the author's findings for managing feral cats for conservation."

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Feral Cat Blog! Note:

AnimalResources and the Feral Cat Blog! urge you to seek out the many nonlethal and nontoxic solutions to all life and earth challenges, large and small!!!

Quantifying Spatial Distribution & Population Size of Feral Cat Colonies in Rhode Island

Update: In October 2011 Anne Flemming Fleming* made a presentation at Tufts > Cummings and to the RI Feral Cat Working Group. The article is in final stage preparation for journal submission.

[* I believe Anne Fleming spells her name with only one m although it is shown with two m's elsewhere.]

Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine
download pdf: Summer Research Training Program Awards 2011
Supported in part by NIH, US Army Medical Command, Merial Veterinary Scholars Program, Morris Animal Foundation

[entire excerpt]

Awardee: Anne Flemming V’13
Mentor: Dr. Scott Marshall and Dr. Joann Lindenmayer
Award Type: US Army

Research Project: Quantifying the Spatial Distribution and Population Size of Feral Cat Colonies in Rhode Island as a Function Population Management Strategies

Summary: The increase in the size and number of feral cat colonies in the United States is a growing concern for public health officials, animal welfare organizations, wildlife advocates and the general public. Feral cats can carry zoonotic and infectious diseases that affect human, companion animal and wildlife health. In addition, wildlife advocates and management professionals are concerned about feral cats’ hunting behaviors having a negative impact on native bird, small mammal and reptile populations. To date, studies on feral cat population management strategies such as trap-neuter-release and trap-euthanize have been limited to a single, or small number of colonies, and have reported conflicting results.

The proposed study will provide baseline data on the locations of a representative sample of feral cat colonies in Rhode Island, an estimate of their current populations, and the management approach, if any, used for each colony. Locations of feral cat colonies and associated management strategies will be identified by conducting interviews with individuals with knowledge of the specific feral cat colonies in Rhode Island. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), a statewide map of the location and spatial distribution of representative feral cat colonies will be developed. A Lincoln-Peterson Index will be used to estimate population size at each colony, where animals visually identified on day 1 are treated as “marked,” since no physical capture of animals is planned. Thus, animals seen on day 2 that were not detected on day 1 would be assumed to be “unmarked.” The L-P index uses the ratio of marked to unmarked animals to estimate population size. The GIS maps will be amended to include estimates of feral cat colony population size based on L-P indices. In addition, estimates of cat density (cats/mile2) per colony’s home range will be provided for select colonies around the state (exact methodology will be discussed and further refined with the RI Feral Cat Working group). Descriptive statistics of the colony data by management approach will be calculated using SPSS release 18.0.0.

This information will be used in a subsequent study in 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of the various management approaches applied, and ultimately develop a comprehensive evidence-based recommendation for feral cat colony management in Rhode Island. Given the absence of any similar comprehensive, statewide evidence-based analysis of this issue, other communities dealing with feral cat management issues may benefit from the findings of this research.

[end excerpt]

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Feral Cat Blog! Resources:

Tufts > Cummings Veterinary > Research Training

Dr. Joann Lindenmayer
EPH Integrating Veterinarians into Public Health Systems; One Health Applications
International, Wildlife and Conservation Medicine

I am checking to see if Yes, the Dr. Scott Marshall listed as a mentor for this project is the same Dr. Scott Marshall who is the State Veterinarian, Rhode Island Department Division of Agriculture, Department of Environmental Management.

In February 2010, there was proposed legislation in Rhode Island to euthanize feral cats. According to news articles, "State veterinarian Scott Marshall brought the proposed legislation to Tassoni in mid-February as a method to improve the free-roaming, feral cat problem in the state." In March 2010, Senator Tassoni dropped the proposal.

Rhode Island 2010 Proposed Legislation > Senate Bill No.2253
BY Tassoni, Maselli
(would obligate animal control officers to impound roaming or feral cats & would obligate animal shelters to accept them for impoundment & dispose of them pursuant to section 4-19-12 of the general laws.)
02/11/2010 Introduced, referred to Senate Constitutional and Regulatory Issues

Some news articles about the Rhode Island proposed legislation to euthanize cats in March 2010

More about the Army participation in the Tufts Cummings Veterinary Medicine training programs and the subject project of this Feral Cat Blog! post, Feral Cat Colonies in Rhode Island:
Veterinary Research Manpower Development for Defense
The long-term goal of this training program is to increase veterinary research manpower by providing research training to veterinary students.
Description: Annual summary rept. 14 Aug 2010-13 Aug 2011
Pages: 19
Report Date: Sep 2011
Contract Number: W81XWH-06-1-0640
Report Number: A445455
[Report available for purchase] Addendum: I located the report here, free to download. Simply contains an abstract similar to that I excerpted above.

For those unaware, "The One Health Initiative is a movement to forge co-equal, all inclusive collaborations between physicians, osteopaths, veterinarians, dentists, nurses and other scientific-health and environmentally related disciplines, including the American Medical Association, American Veterinary Medical Association, the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the U.S. National Environmental Health Association (NEHA). Additionally, more than 600 prominent scientists, physicians and veterinarians worldwide have endorsed the initiative."
"The One Health concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. The synergism achieved will advance health care for the 21st century and beyond by accelerating biomedical research discoveries, enhancing public health efficacy, expeditiously expanding the scientific knowledge base, and improving medical education and clinical care. When properly implemented, it will help protect and save untold millions of lives in our present and future generations."

In June 2006 Rhode Island became the first state in the nation to require cat owners to spay or neuter their pets and already had a statute requiring Cat Identification:
Rhode Island Permit Program for Cats
Rhode Island Cat Identification Program

Previous Feral Cat Blog! posts on spay neuter and feral cat legislation in Rhode Island:

Saturday, June 21, 2008
input Rhode Island spay neuter legislation

Friday, June 09, 2006
MUST fix rhode island cats

Monday, May 29, 2006
Rhode Island cat legislation

Friday, May 12, 2006
state to require cats spay neuter?

Saturday, March 24, 2012

Kitty Cams Research Project Update > Hernandez, Loyd - University of Georgia

Kitty Cams Research Project Update


We had enough footage from 55 of our participating cats to analyze. Thanks to our diligent volunteers, we had an average of 37 hours of footage per roaming kitty. One of the most surprising things we witnessed was cats adopting a second set of owners. Four of our project kitties were recorded entering another household for food and/or affection!
Results indicate that a minority of roaming cats in Athens (44%) hunt wildlife and that reptiles, mammals and invertebrates constitute the majority of suburban prey. Hunting cats captured an average of 2 items during seven days of roaming. Carolina Anoles (small lizards) were the most common prey species followed by Woodland Voles (small mammals). Eighty-five percent of wildlife captures were witnessed during the warm season (March-November in the southern US). Twenty-three percent of cat prey items were returned to households, 49% of items were left at the site of capture and 26% consumed. Cats roaming during warmer seasons were more likely to exhibit hunting behavior and the number of captures per hunting cat is expected to decrease with increasing cat age. Cat age, sex, and time spent outside did not significantly influence hunting behavior.
The most common risk factors experienced by suburban free-roaming cats include: crossing roads (45% of our sample), encountering strange cats (25%), eating and drinking substances away from home (25%), exploring storm drain systems (20%) and entering crawlspaces where they could become trapped (20%). Eighty-five percent of project cats were witnessed exhibiting at least 1 risk behavior. Male cats were more likely to engage in risk behavior than female cats and fewer risk behaviors were witnessed by older individuals. Total time spent outside also influenced the number of risks experienced by free-roaming cats.
[end excerpt]

Also presented at the February 2012 University of Georgia Warnell Grad Students Association Symposium:


Thursday, Feb 16th, 2012

Kitty Cams: A Novel Look at Free-roaming Cat Behavior
Kerrie Anne T. Loyd, Sonia M. Hernandez, Kyler J. Abernathy 1, Barrett J. Foster 1, John P. Carroll, Michael J. Yabsley & Greg J. Marshall 1
1 National Geographic Remote Imaging
Category: PhD Candidate

Domestic cats (Felis catus) are extremely efficient and abundant suburban predators. The predation rate of the domestic cat remains a topic of considerable social and scientific debate and warrants attention using improved methodology. Previous predation studies relied on homeowner reports of prey take and other indirect methods. We monitored the activities of 60 owned, free-roaming cats in suburban Athens, Georgia over a one year period (Nov. 2010- Oct. 2011) using Kitty Cam video cameras. Kitty Cams allow recording of an animal-eye view without disrupting behavior. Each participating cat wore a video camera for 7-10 total days and all outdoor activity was recorded for analysis. Specific research goals included: 1) quantifying the frequency of cat interactions with native wildlife 2) identifying common prey species of suburban cats 3) investigating risk behaviors experienced by roaming cats and 4) examining predictors of outdoor behavior. Preliminary results indicate that a minority of roaming cats hunt wildlife and that invertebrates and reptiles constitute the majority of suburban prey. Additionally, owned, free-roaming cats in Athens only bring a few of their prey back to their households; most is consumed or left at the site of capture. The most common risk behaviors exhibited by roaming cats include crossing roads, approaching other cats and exploring storm drains. Demographic factors did not influence hunting behavior but were predictors of risk behaviors. The Kitty Cams project aims to contribute reliable statistics and irrefutable images to the growing debate over free-roaming cats in the environment.

[end excerpt]

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Feral Cat Blog! Note:

December 13, 2011: AnimalResources e-mail to leading cat advocates nationwide
Subject: Update Re: Kitty Cam Research Project, Loyd feral cat work

We currently have video analysis complete for half of our 60 participating cats. Preliminary results suggest only 30% of roaming pet cats hunt. Thus far, the most common prey types of Athens' kitties are reptiles followed by invertebrates (insects). We suspect this may differ by season though. Most cats experienced at least one risk while roaming their neighborhoods. Common risk behaviors include: crossing roads, exploring storm drains, entering crawlspaces where they could be trapped and encountering other cats. A report presenting full results of the kitty cams project should be available late Spring 2012.
[end excerpt]

 Loyd et al also contributed the paper below at The Wildlife Society November 2011 annual conference in Hawaii. I do not have a copy, please share if you do. (I've mentioned the other cat-related presentations, papers, posters at that conference.)

 Sunday, November 6
Session 23 Contributed Paper
Kitty Cams: A novel technique to measure domestic cat predation on wildlife. Kerrie Anne T. Loyd, Sonia M. Hernandez, John P. Carroll, Gregory T. Marshall, Michael J. Yabsley

 Reference my March 13, 2011 e-mail outlining all of Loyd's publications, presentations and projects regarding feral freeroaming cats.

[end e-mail]

Friday, March 23, 2012

Toxoplasma gondii in Circumpolar People and Wildlife

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Toxoplasma gondii in Circumpolar People and Wildlife

To cite this article:
Stacey A. Elmore, Emily J. Jenkins, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Lydden Polley, J. Jeffrey Root, and Chester G. Moore. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. January 2012, 12(1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/vbz.2011.0705.

Author information
Stacey A. Elmore,1 Emily J. Jenkins,1 Kathryn P. Huyvaert,2 Lydden Polley,1 J. Jeffrey Root,3 and Chester G. Moore4
1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
2Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
3United States Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado.
4Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.


Despite extensive worldwide surveillance in populations of both people and wildlife, relatively little is known about Toxoplasma gondii ecology in the circumpolar north. Many northern animals and people demonstrate exposure to T. gondii, but the apparent low densities of domestic or wild felids suggest that additional transmission mechanisms are responsible for T. gondii persistence in high latitudes, whether remote source (from another region), vertical, or dietary. People in these northern communities who practice subsistence hunting might have an increased infection risk due to traditional food preparation techniques and frequent handling of wild game. Recent advances in T. gondii genotyping, understanding of host–parasite relationships, and increased human and wildlife surveillance will help to address knowledge gaps about parasite evolution, distribution, and abundance throughout the Arctic and Subarctic.

Southeast Partners in Flight Conference - Feral Freeroaming Cats

Southeast Partners in Flight Conference
"Conserving Birds in a Changing Environment"
February 7 - 9, 2012
Raleigh, North Carolina

2012 SEPIF Conference Agenda where you can click on links to presentations

Opening remarks by Ted Simons [of North Carolina State University Fish and Wildlife Cooperative - see notes at bottom of post]

download pdf Controlling Invasive Exotic Animals on the Florida Keys National Wildlife Refuges: A Community Partnership
A Presentation to Southeast PIF
by Phillip Hughes / Anne Morkill, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
February 7, 2012

[Apparently presented by Chad Anderson of FWS located in Big Pine Key National Wildlife Refuge who works with Anne Morkill, Director of Florida Keys National Wildlife Refuges Complex. ]


Commitment to “No free-roaming cats on Big Pine Key” through an integrated public & private effort of education, enforcement, and trapping and relocating feral & free-roaming cats from refuge lands

The USFWS will:

Trap & remove feral and free-roaming cats on refuge lands, turn over to MOCO animal control shelters

[end excerpts]

Note: MOCO is Monroe County

Download PDF: Feral and Free-ranging Cats and Urban Birds
Steve Holzman, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [Athens, Georgia]


Next steps

Continued work on USFWS position statement on feral and free-ranging cats, and zero tolerance on all federal lands, especially parks and refuges.

State policies that advocate trap and remove for all state lands.

TNR only where cats can be prevented from affecting populations of native wildlife (fenced colonies? Cat enclosures - Greynolds Park?)

Mandatory spay/neuter of all owned cats (special permits available for breeders)

Mandatory micro-chipping to discourage future abandonment

[end excerpt]

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Feral Cat Blog! Notes:

The two presentations above contain similar content to other FWS material that AnimalResources has previously provided to leading cat advocates nationwide such as the Florida Keys Integrated Predator Plan, other presentations by Morkill and Hughes, and by Tom Will of FWS Midwest Migratory Bird. In recent years, increasing and rededicated efforts have been made in opposition to feral and free roaming or unrestrained cats and Trap Neuter Return by Tom Will and other FWS staff, several leaders of the American Bird Conservancy and The Wildlife Society, and others.

In August 2011 AnimalResources shared info with leading cat advocates nationwide about a Florida Keys Predator Study regarding free roaming cats, a $300K contract awarded by FWS to the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Dept. Biology, NC State University, Raleigh, NC. The project lead is Ted Simons. In January and August 2011 AnimalResources provided the list of research needs for priority species in the Florida Keys (marsh rabbit, cotton mouse and woodrat) relevant to feral or free roaming cats as outlined in an RFP of the USFWS Southeast Florida Ecological. These are significant because for years, FWS has planned and attempted to trap and remove free roaming cats in the Florida Keys Refuges without a clue about the number of cats or endangered species involved.

For those unaware, there are mind-numbing multi-layers of US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Interior government agencies and organizations and their projects, programs, partnerships, initiatives, training, relationships and funding: federal and state fish, wildlife, hunting agencies and nonprofits related to those; other bird, conservation, wildlife nonprofit organizations; and state land grant universities (agriculture and forest research, Extension, etc, Hatch Act of 1887 research funding, Cooperative Research Units) and much more!

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Free-ranging domestic cats reduce the effective protected area of a Polish national park

Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde
Volume 77, Issue 3, May 2012, Pages 204–210

Free-ranging domestic cats reduce the effective protected area of a Polish national park
Izabela A. Wierzbowska a, Joanna Olko a, Magdalena Hędrzak b, Kevin R. Crooks c
a Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Krakow, Poland
b Department of Breeding Methods and Management of Farm and Wild Animals, University of Agriculture, 21 Mickiewicza Ave., 31-120 Krakow, Poland
c Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, 115 Wagar, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1474, USA
Received 14 July 2011. Accepted 23 January 2012. Available online 20 February 2012.

Poland's Animal Protection Act, as of 2002, made it legal to shoot free-ranging cats and dogs. The act triggered substantial social debate with opponents arguing that this legislation was weakly supported by scientific evidence of the ecological impacts of free-ranging pets. Our main research goal was to examine the activity of free-ranging domestic cats within a Polish protected area by applying radio-telemetry methods to determine space use and degree of encroachment into the national park. We trapped and radio-tracked 19 animals from three sites (focal households) located in Ojcow National Park (ONP) in southern Poland from June 2003 to March 2006. Annual 100% MCP home range size varied from 0.02 km2 to 1.46 km2, and was significantly larger for males (mean ± SE = 0.79 ± 0.34 km2; median = 0.53 km2) than for females (mean ± SE = 0.13 ± 0.05 km2; median = 0.13 km2). The distance travelled by individual cats from focal sites did not significantly differ between males (mean ± SE = 232.00 ± 21.05 m; median = 191 m) and females (mean ± SE = 232.50 ± 12.47 m; median = 228 m), with maximum distances of 1.5 km for males and 1.1 km for females. All monitored cats were in close proximity to nature reserves and ranged into protected areas without any human control. Cats living in the households in the park and its surrounding buffer zone, roaming at 200 m and 1000 m radius distances from their households, occupied from 6% to 100% of the park area, respectively. Our results reveal that free-ranging domestic cats roam through and potentially impact the entire national park, thus reducing its effective protected area.

Keywords: Felis silvestris catus; Home range; Movement; Poland; Radio-telemetry

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Feral Cat Blog! Note:

~Barb, AnimalResources has previously shared with leading cat advocates nationwide various journal articles relevant to feral or freeroaming cats by Kevin Crooks including the recent Domestic cats, bobcats and pumas may bridge infection gap between people and wildlife titled "Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infectious disease transmission" or papers by students of Crooks such as Ashley Gramza and Jesse Lewis. I first became aware of Crooks early in my animal volunteer work from the Crooks and Soule paper on Mesopredator Release, 1999.

conflict between federal migratory bird protections & state / local feral cat ordinances

Added note: I have requested the paper when available.

PERFORMING ORGANIZATION: School of Natural Resources & Agricultural Sciences

[excerpts, always read entire]

START DATE: Feb 1, 2011 TERMINATION DATE: Jan 31, 2015

KA610 - Domestic Policy Analysis
S0899 - Wildlife and natural fisheries, general/other
S6050 - Communities, areas, and regions
F3050 - Law
G2.1 - Expand Domestic Market Opportunities

KEYWORDS: legal conflicts~implications~climate change~natural resources management~land managers~law~policy~federal land~state land~public lands

PROGRESS: Jan 1, 2011 TO Dec 31, 2011

OUTPUTS: I have been examining how federal land management agencies have circumscribed their range of management options by clinging to regulations that are unnecessarily narrow interpretations of statutory language. As climate change alters landscapes and ecosystems agencies will need more, not fewer, management choices in order to meet their legal obligations. I am working on a comprehensive review paper that will target a more general audience and which will synthesize all of the work I have done to date on predator control, intensive management, and federal-state conflicts on wildlife management in Alaska. I hope to have this manuscript in a form ready for submission by spring 2012. I have begun a research project examining the conflict between federal migratory bird protections and state and local ordinances protecting feral cats which are often a major source of bird mortality. This work is being carried out in cooperation with Nell Fuller of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
PARTICIPANTS: I am working with Nell Fuller of the US Fish and Wildlife Service on the project examining conflicts between migratory bird protection laws and feral cat protections.
TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audiences for all of this work are land, resource, and wildlife managers at the federal and state levels, as well as the legal community that serves those sectors and the members of the public interested in those issues.

IMPACT: 2011-01-01 TO 2011-12-31 The examination of federal land management strategies in the face of climate change will have broad appeal to the land and wildlife management communities as well as the legal community that serves those sectors. While there is an ongoing push to amend existing land management laws or pass entirely new ones so that the law more directly acknowledges and addresses the challenges brought by climate change, such legislative change is still in the distant future. That means that at present the most effective changes will have to be made at the agency/regulatory level. This review paper will bring this body of work more readily into the hands of land and wildlife managers and agency policy makers. I hope that the final product will be very accessible and therefore useful to those individuals faced with these questions and conflicts everyday. Numerous published, scientific studies have demonstrated that feral cats kill millions of birds each year in the U.S. When birds are listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered, feral cats are often named part of the problem. Yet many state and local governments protect and even perpetuate feral cat populations. This work should be useful to wildlife and land managers and advocates struggling with balancing these various legal obligations.

[end excerpts]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Feral Cat Blog! Resources:

Julie Lurman Joly, Faculty, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Nell Fuller, US Fish and Wildlife Service
Grants Management Specialist
State Wildlife Grant Program (SWG)
Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program

"The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is an agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), part of the executive branch of the Federal Government. Congress created NIFA through the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. NIFA replaced the former Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), which had been in existence since 1994."

"NIFA's unique mission is to advance knowledge for agriculture, the environment, human health and well-being, and communities by supporting research, education, and extension programs in the Land-Grant University System and other partner organizations. NIFA doesn't perform actual research, education, and extension but rather helps fund it at the state and local level and provides program leadership in these areas."

About Hatch Grants

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Other CRIS Projects about feral or freeroaming cats that AnimalResources has previously shared with leading cat advocates nationwide:



PROJECT DIRECTOR: Koelsch, R. Wright, R. Baxendale, F. Bernards, M. Bradshaw, J. Gaussoin, R. Hygnstrom, S. Jackson, T. Kamble, S. Ogg, C. Streich, A. Yonts, C. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
UNL Extension

Feral Cats and Their Management, 2010
Hildreth, Van Tassel, Hygnstrom

USGS PWRC-methods to improve trapping of free-roaming cats in National Parks

Added Note: I have requested more recent reports.

USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
scroll down and click on [downloadable pdf:] Managing Free-Roaming Cats at the Patuxent Research Refuge

Development of methods to improve trapping of free-roaming cats in National Parks
Report Number: 49442 Reporting Year: 2008

Permit Number: PRWI-2008-SCI-0006
Investigator: Nimish Vyas

Development of methods to improve trapping of free-roaming cats in National Parks
Report Number: 43595 Reporting Year: 2007

Permit Number: NACE-2007-SCI-0007
Investigator: Nimish Vyas

Development of methods to improve trapping of free-roaming cats in National Parks.
Report Number: 43655 Reporting Year: 2007

Permit Number: CATO-2007-SCI-0007
Investigator: Nimish Vyas

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

original Feral Cat Blog! post for reference:

Friday, June 20, 2008
test baiting schemes to trap feral cats in national parks

Models simulating the predatory pressure of domestic cats

Development and credibility testing of individual-based models, simulating the predatory pressure of the domestic cats (Felis catus)
Jannick Hansen
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
M.Sc. Thesis January 2012
Master’s Thesis in Biology Manuscript draft aimed for publication in Ecological Modelling


Even though the domestic cat (Felis catus) is an abundant predator in many parts of the world, little is still known about the actual impact that domestic cats have on prey species. Studies have shown a great variation in the expected impact on prey species, and this variation can to a high degree be explained by spatial variations, as the local distribution and densities of both cat and prey have a markedly affect on cats predatory pressure.

This study has incorporated the spatial complexity of the domestic cats hunting pressure, by developing and testing three individual-­-based domestic cat predation models, with increasing complexity. The purpose was to evaluate both the need for complexity and the usability of the best model in reliably assessing the predatory pressure of domestic cats.

Development and testing was based on available literature data concerning important factors linked to cats predation pressure. Data for testing was primarily sourced from an urban and suburban study in Dunedin, NZ, which contained data of cats home range sizes in addition with estimates of the city-­-wide catches and the proportion of cats contributing to the catch numbers.

The results showed an improved ability to recreate the Dunedin scenario with added complexity to model behaviour, although it was not possible for any of the model types to decrease the deviation between the model output and the Dunedin observations, to a reasonable extent. The difficulties in improving the models compared to the test scenario, is very likely to be a result of inaccuracy in the key assumptions for the model simulations. The developed model does, however, still provide a useful purpose, as it can offer rough evaluations of cats hunting pressure. Moreover, it is spatially flexible and, as opposed to conventional extrapolation methods, can be applied in a wide range of possible scenario types. Reliable and testable data of domestic cats hunting pressure is, however, needed before a more accurate evaluation of an individual­-based cat predation model can be attempted.

download pdf file:

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Yolanda van Heezik, thanked and cited in the above thesis, has written various journal-published articles about feral freeroaming cats and was a contributor to The Wildlife Society's propaganda package on cats in the spring 2011 issue of Wildlife Professional that I shared with leading cat advocates on March 12, 2011.